Welcome to the New Enlightenment…
“All the world’s a stage we pass through.” – R. Ayana
Hidden Substrate of Reality
The History of the Aether Theory
A Compendious Summary and Chronology of the Aether Theories
In 1887 two American physicists, Michelson and Morley, performed what has turned out to be one of the most historic but misunderstood experiments in physics. 
“It must be emphasized that absolute motion [and therefore absolute space] is not inconsistent with the various well-established relativistic effects; indeed the evidence is that absolute motion is the cause of these relativistic effects, a proposal that goes back to Lorentz in the 19th century.”
– Reginald T. Cahill 
This article presents the historic development of the aether theory from a scientific (rather than a philosophical) perspective. In step-by-step table format, one may follow the chronology of the exploration of various theories of the medium of the universe —the medium, sometimes equated with absolute space. One may follow the twists, turns and detours —the unexpected experimental results, the new theoretical insights, the unfortunate misinterpretations— of one of the most compelling concepts in modern physics. …
The highlight of the theory development came in the pivotal year of 2002 with the introduction of two testable models based on luminiferous AND gravitational aether: One of these employs a dynamic aether as the first luminiferous-and-gravitational aether in the context of the expanding universe model. The other employs the dynamic aether as the first luminiferous-and-gravitational aether in the context of the non-expanding cellular-universemodel. In both theories, it is the presence of aether that causes actual relativistic effects.
For a printable copy follow: The History of the Aether Theory (includes detailed references).
Sans Aether, the Universe Becomes “The Preposterous Universe”
Aether is the basic substratum of all space; aether is the raw essence of the Universe. Aether permeates the innermost recesses of all matter. Without it the universe is contrary to nature, contrary to reason and common sense. Without it the universe is utterly absurd.
And what is worrying is that the scholars who have meticulously assembled our complex picture of the universe know it is absurd.
Consider this: The cosmology that is studied in universities the world over, and practiced in the relevant research departments, is a cosmology devoid of the concept of aether. Assumed to be a dispensable relic of 19th century voodoo science, the aether was discarded a long time ago. And the resulting universe model, missing a vital ingredient, has not worked properly since. In fact, as a depiction of reality the class of expanding universe models —of which the various big bang (BB) models are a subset— has been an utter and complete failure.
Sean M. Carroll, a physicist at the California Institute of Technology, sums up one of his extensively researched and densely-referenced papers on The Cosmological Constant with the conclusion (which he bases on the no-aether interpretation of the evidence allegedly showing that the cosmological constant, Λ, dominates the universe, that the expansion of the universe is accelerating, and that the majority of the matter content in the universe must be in an unknown non-baryonic form): “Nobody would have guessed that we live in such a universe. … This scenario staggers under the burden of its unnaturalness, …”