The first Panama Canal and Suez Canal were built by the Chinese and Egyptians…

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The first Panama Canal and the first Suez Canal were built by the Chinese and the Egyptians
by Gavin Menzies

Some months ago we started serious research into the DNA of the native Indian peoples of North America. This quickly threw up a mystery:  why were there so many clusters of Indian peoples on the borders of Panama, Ecuador and Colombia – no less than nine different peoples – who had DNA with such strong affinities to the Chinese and Japanese? Obviously Chinese and Japanese seafarers had settled in those areas – but why choose such an inhospitable country where there appeared little opportunity for trade compared with the rich Maya civilisation further north or the Incas further south? Why settle in the jungle?

Either side of the Atrato River (which flows from south east Panama  into the Caribbean have DNA which Professor Gabriel Novick and colleagues have summarised as follows: “Close similarity between the Chinese and native Americans suggests recent gene flow from Asia”. The same can be said of Professor Novick’s description of the Guambiano and Ingano peoples who live nearby where the Rio San Juan reaches the Pacific. The people who live either side of those two rivers – the Nganama/Wanana – “are clustered closer to Japanese people than to other American natives” (Fideas E Leon S and colleagues).

Professor Fideas E Leon S and colleagues also found that some 200 miles further south “the Cayapa or Chichi from Ecuador [have genes] molecularly similar to those found in south east Asian and Japanese people”. Professors Tulio Arends and Galengo studied “the occurrence in transferins in 91 Yupa Indians, 69 of whom belong to the Pariri tribe and 22 to the Shaparu tribe. They inhabit the foothills of the Sierra Perija (latitude 9o to 110 north, longitude 720 40’ to 730 30’ west)…”

“In 58 per cent of the Yupa Indians of Venezuela there is a slow moving transferin electrophoretically indistinguishable from that which to date has only been found in Chinese. This finding is additional evidence of the existence of a racial link between South American Indians and Chinese.”

In short, between Lake Maracaibo (which can be clearly identified on maps such as the Cantino published before Europeans reached that part of America) and the estuary of the Rio San Juan there are fourteen Indian peoples who have Chinese or Japanese genes – a discovery made by seventeen dedicated geneticists.

When the first Europeans arrived in that part of the world they found coconuts planted along the Pacific coasts and on islands off the coasts – coconuts being plants which originated in the Far East. They also found Chinese ship dogs and Chinese rice.  Drake captured a Chinese junk trading between North and South America whose pilot had a chart showing the Pacific.  Taking all this evidence in the round, it seems to me inescapable that the Chinese and Japanese lived in this small part of the Isthmus of Darien and created settlements there before the first Europeans arrived – for, as mentioned in earlier talks, the first Europeans found Chinese people already settled on the Pacific coasts of both North and South America. The puzzle is, why should this be?

A clue may be obtained, as always, from medieval maps, which were published before Europeans reached the Pacific coasts of North America, notably the Waldseemueller. To my mind, the Waldseemueller accurately charts the Pacific coast of North America from 500 north right down to the approaches to the Straits of Magellan in the southern part of South America. Perhaps even more interesting, the Waldseemueller chart, which was published in 1507, does not show the Straits of Magellan – this chart was available for the public at large to purchase. However, smaller globes which Waldseemueller produced at the same time for his private client, do show the Straits of Magellan. So before Magellan set sail Waldseemueller knew the Straits of Magellan existed. As mentioned earlier in another talk, Magellan also had seen a chart of the Straits of Magellan in the King of Portugal’s library before he set sail on his circumnavigation of the world. He referred to that chart when he was passing through the Straits of Magellan.

The Waldseemueller also showed an opening between the Atlantic and Pacific at 80 north – that is, the latitude of the southern parts of the Isthmus of Darien where there is this cluster of Indian peoples who have Chinese and Japanese DNA. Pedro Menedez de Aviles, the first Castilian viceroy of Florida, believed that there was a canal which linked Pacific and Atlantic, for he found the wrecks of Chinese junks off the coast of Florida and stated that these could not have been there unless there was a passage similar to the Straits of Magellan. His biographer, Carlos Prince reported, “Chinese . . . with Tartairs, Japanese and Koreans . . . crossed the maritime stretch into the kingdom of Quivira, populating Mexico, Panama, Peru and other eastern countries of the Indies. In short, taking these reports together with the Synopsis of Evidence on my website, reveals a mountain of evidence which corroborates what Carlos Prince said – Chinese, Japanese and Koreans did indeed populate Panama, as is evidenced by the DNA of today’s people.

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